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The Mongols were religiously tolerant and culturally tolerant. they allowed for the conquered to keep cultural identity and religion after they were taken over. they even adapted to new cultures that they had seen throughout their conquest.
They practiced religious tolerance among all subjects as well as treated their soldiers well, promoted based on merit, rather than birth, established a vast postal system, and enforced universal rule of law.
Open to new ideas, religion, culture, learning, innovations. They immediately incorporated better techniques/innovations and other cultural aspects into their empire for use. If you made it and they saw it as useful, good then they incorporated it into their life and empire. Pretty religious and culturally accepting as well.
As we conquered many cities, we spared those who were obedient and talented. We allowed them to continue living which is a civilized action. We killed those who were evil towards our progress and help benefit those who could help us. We saved peoples lives when we took them over, and we overall helped hem as their city and people benfied from joining our profitable empire
when destroying a city, the Mongols spared artisans, philosophers, and people with skill, later on they would put those people in multiple parts of their empire which allowed knowledge to spread throughout it
The Mongols were civilized because they practiced religious tolerance and did not discriminate against others due to their religion. They wanted to expand their empire as much as they could, so religion did not play a huge role for them.
I have to agree with the fact that they did conquer a lot of land, but the system they used was very much wrong. They shouldn't of have killed as many people as they did. All of those innocent lives died only because they didn't want to be under the rule of someone else.
the mongols built great things and established new infrastructure including the expansion of the grand canal, the creation of new bridges and roads, and the creation of a new postal system. they also built a beautiful city called Karakorum.
They destroyed many cities and made people surrender, but, the people they did surrender were able to practice their own religion. As long as they didn't retaliate, they were able to live relatively freely.
William Rubrick: His roundtrip journey lasted the better part of three years. William had the distinction of being the first European to visit the Mongol capital of Karakorum on the Orkhon River and return to write about it.
He provides a unique description of the Khan's palace there and abundant detail about the individuals of various ethnicities and religions whom he encountered.
I was part of the best-organized army at the time, and we were the best with our weapons and horses. Being a well-trained warrior, an organized army is important in a society, and with all the advanced tactics, we were pretty smart and civilized for our enhanced, advanced military.
William Rubrick: He was particularly interested in the Nestorian Christians. He describes generally with great precision Mongol traditional culture, many features of which have survived amongst the herders one may observe today in inner Asia.
Set an example for other Mongol women because she was spirited, independent and outspoken. Most likely was the influence for Genghis Khan’s policies that allowed women to actively participate in empire affairs. - Hoelun
Our army was outnumbered in many battles yet we were almost undefeated. We had great military tactics that helped us win. We were the best horsemen and established the largest land empire in the world. - Genghis Khan
William Rubrick: He viewed the Mongols as civilized by the way he describes the palace as “abundant” and he also worked with the Mongols to promote Christianity. purpose of promoting conversion to Christianity and gauging support of the Mongols for Crusades on behalf of King Louis IX.
I got to see the conquering of many cities and the cities we conquered benefited from our attacks as they joined our amazing army and Mongol Empire. Yes we stole their riches, but they benefited more than their riches from joining our prosperous empire
Men and women both contributed to society, and gender hierarchies didn’t exist. Women were responsible for domestic affairs, could divorce their husbands, and were consulted in affairs. Men were responsible for laws and order and making decisions on behalf on the rest of society.
Marco Polo wrote of huge transportation canals like those in his hometown of Venice, Italy. Citizens could purchase paperback books, eat rice from porcelain, and wear silk garments. Salt production via the Silk Road was huge and steel production was at a level not yet reached by Europe.
Three different levels of society that executed the many laws and rules that the Mongols had created. Hierarchy based on merit and not on social status was common, and this led to many regulations. Tolerance of differences was common, and Mongols were only harsh when not obeyed by their people.
After they conquered cities or places they would rape women and kill males/men (usually younger) so that they couldn’t reproduce and that the Mongol population/descendants would grow, while the city they conquered would have less descendant of that people.
Fearsome plunderer and looters. They looted the riches and prized possessions of the cities/places they conquered, as well as stole workers that were seen as specialized or essential (also stole women). Destroyed homes and took people away from their families and home
Pope Innocent IV (2): Pope Innocent sent off a letter with some emissaries to the Great Khan, leader of the Mongols. The Khan at the time was Güyük Khan. He sent some Benedictine monks with the letter. They traveled more than three thousand miles, and it took them more than eighteen months to get to the Mongol camp. And when they finally did get there, they were kept waiting for another few months before they finally had their audience with the Great Khan. The letter was saying that Great Khan should be careful because he is putting himself at the risk of the judgment of God and he wanted peace
The Mongols helped spread the plague (Black Death) by catapulting their soldier’s bodies, who were infected with the disease, across enemy walls to eliminate the people in that city. This is known as biological warfare.
Witness: Prince Mstislav lll of Kiev - Prince Mstislav and the others held out for three days before surrendering. The Mongols celebrated their victory with a feast and constructed a platform to sit upon for their feast. The captive Russian princes did not enjoy the banquet because the Mongols used them in the construction of the platform as support for the planks - they were crushed as the Mongols celebrated. Ultimately, the Prince and others died from being crushed by the Mongols.
The reputation of the Mongols for slaughter spread even farther than their actual Conquest.based on Persian, Chinese, Russian, and other accounts of the speed and ruthlessness with which the Mongols carved out the largest contiguous land empire in world history,
Weatherford states that ‘conservative scholars place the number of dead from Genghis Khan’s invasion of central Asia at 15 million within five years’, however ‘even this more modest total…would require that each Mongol kill more than a hundred people’.
helped the rapid spread of the Black Death due to the facks that they opened up trade and by catapulting their soldier's dead sick bodies, over their enemies walls, which is insane because the Mongols even thaught about biochemical warfare
After the death of Genghis Khan, the empire fell leaving thousands of people without a city or leaders to help them recover. they also helped demolish the number of people in these cities by spreading the Black Death leaving more hopelessness.
Pope Innocent IV: In the 1230s and 1240s, the Mongol armies were raiding Russian towns and cities. These armies even made their way into modern-day Poland and Hungary. They did more raiding than occupying territory—they would come and take what they could and leave a lot of death. It left Eastern Europe and Russia unsettled and it started a panic through the rest of Europe and the Holy Roman Empire. And that is when the pope got involved.
Witness: Prince Mstislav lll of Kiev - Prince Mstislav lll of Kiev fought against the Mongols, who were trying to conquer Russia. However, it didn’t end up going the way he thought it would. The Mongols massacred the Russian camp before anyone could organize a defense.
in Juvayni book, he talks about how he thought that the Mongols had the strength of 700,000 men, how they were smart by rounding up all the meat over a large region and dried it for the winter, how they were quick in battle, and how they were ruthless
Witness: Prince Mstislav lll of Kiev - Many of the Russians attempted to flee, only to be cut down, but Prince Mstislav and a few others retreated and rallied a force at a rocky area on the banks of the Kalka and resisted Mongol attacks. As this occurred, other Mongols pursued the Kipchaks and any Russians who fled all the way to the banks of the Dniepe.
In his book, Juvayni stated “The first stones which were discharged from them broke the defenders' trebuchet and many were crushed under it. Fear of the quarrels from the crossbows overcame them so that they were in a complete panic and tried to make shields out of veils [i.e. they did best to defend with very indadequate equipment.] Some who were standing on towers crept in their terror like mice into holes or fled like lizards into the crannies of the rocks”
The Mongol general Bayan was bent on eliminating the threat posed by Song remnants, so he led his troops in pursuit and attacked southern China. He was forced to flee in order not to be killed due to mass murder of the song dynasty
Gabriele de Mussis (city of Kaffa) - The Black Death is widely believed to have reached Europe from the Crimea as the result of a biological warfare attack this could have been lead to the Mongols and their ruthless biological warfare tactics.
Pope Innocent IV (3):The Great Khan sent a letter back to the pope. He said, “If you should act up to your word then you, the great pope, should come with the monarchs to pay us homage and we should thereupon instruct you.” He went on to inform the pope that he was not subject to the pope, but rather it was the other way around. The Pope's letter was not a success and the Mongols continued to raid.