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They reinvigorated cross Eurasian trade. The Silk Road trading routes that had existed for 1000 years before the Mongols, had fallen into disuse. But the Mongols highly values trade because they could tax and make money on it. This was part of their organized government because their government put these taxes in place and relied on them for profit.
Xu Heng taught Zhu Xi’s Confucianism teachings to the Mongols, and with the respect of his intelligence it granted him to become an informed advisor to the conquest dynasty. Then prompting him to prevail Zhu Xi’s teachings as he set up the success of Confucianism of the Yuan Bureaucracy.
They were able to organize the best army in the world with a small number of people, but able to kill and control larger amounts of people. They also conquered large amounts of land in a small amount of time.
The Mongols were civilized with their practice of religious tolerance. They implemented several policies throughout the areas that they conquered that allowed people to practice whatever religion they wanted. This practice was not common at the time.
Among the lands that they conquered, The Mongols mainly had the settlements surrender to them and prove loyalty. That is the only occasion where those from the conquered regions would be able to practice free religion.
Under Mongol rule, merchants had a higher status than they had in traditional China. During their travels they could rest and secure supplies through a postal-station system that the Mongols had established.
The Mongols increased communication through Eurasia by creating a pony express with horses and riders. With this, they could quickly relay information called the Yam system. They also Built roads, bridges, and postal stations for increased trade and communication.
Another reason that shows how the Mongols were civilized people is that they protected the silk road after they had conquered those regions. The silk roads became very safe and authorized under Mongol rule.
The Mongols were civilized since they protected the Silk Roads. They did this by punishing bandits. This allowed for trade expansion since the roads were being used and people were able to travel through several states.
Marco Polo: Traveled the silk Road and settled in Shangdu for 17 years where they gave Kublai Khan gifts and services (since Marco Polo served him for 17 years, he probably liked the Mongols and their intentions)
The Mongols used advanced military tactics and were adaptable.They utilized shortbows and horses in combat as an example and also learned to siege castles and fortresses as they expanded their conquest.
The mongols were civilized because they incorporated enemies to their own tribes instead of just killing them off. Instead of wiping out the entirety of a civilization, they welcomed in people who would be useful to them.
The Mongols were civilized through their successful ruling. They were successful because of their understanding of centralized power, influencing the nations they ruled over to do the same in the future.
The mongols expanded trade and communication in many important ways.The first was their protection of the Silk road which discouraged theivery and encouraged the use of it as a trade route.Another was the Yam system which was a communication system that transported messages.
The Mongols increased communication through Eurasia by developing the Yam System which was used by Merchants, horses and riders. It consisted of weigh stations and was an area where information could be quickly exchanged.
Khan's social policies were liberal for that time. One example of this was him putting forth a policy that supported religious tolerance. This inspired Loyalty in formerly oppressed groups like Taoists and Buddhists.
Xu Heng taught Zhu’s teachings which stated that people needed to listen to a spiritual form of Confucianism; i.e belief in spirits, stopping barbarian encroachments (intrusion of one's property and rights), self-cultivation, and moral reflection.
When coming upon an enemy settlement Ghengis Khan sent a small group to ask the settlement to surrender. Upon refusal, Khan killed all members of that settlement. This shows his extreme ideologies and opinions on loyalty.
Mongol’s conquests were a major factor in transmitting and transporting the bubonic plague, from Southern China to Central Asia. it followed familiar paths of trade and military conquest. A large amount of the Mongols' spreading of the plague was believed to be intentional as a way of Biological warfare.
Alauddin Khilji: The Mongols could have set India back 200 years in advancements but due to his success against them he preserved it. This shows the Mongols brutality by showing how they are able to destroy entire cultures and move on.
Al-Mustasim: The Mongols took great advantage in his weak defense and looked past his surrendering. Because of Mustasim's history of ignoring Helugu, Helugu saw this as an act of aggression and completely ignored a surrendering.
In 1245, Pope Innocent had sent another mission led by Ascelin of Lombardia and met with the Mongol ruler Baichu near the Caspian Sea in 1247. In response Guyuk demanded that the Pope appear in person at the Mongol imperial headquarters. The Mongols met with Innocent IV in 1248, who again appealed to the Mongols to stop their killing of Christians.
Al Mustasim: He was an Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad. Viewpoints of his differed from those of his conflicting advisors. This gave the opportunity to Helugu, a grandson of Khan, to conquer the Caliph and his advisors, killing him and the already surrendering advisors.
I agree with this because over the time the Mongols were conquering, they killed millions. My person I had to research, Muhammad II, sultan of Khwarazm, one of his governors was killed by getting molten silver put into his eyes and mouth.
For some cities that were difficult to conquer, the Mongols catapulted bodies that had the Bubonic plague. “And at least according to one story, the Mongols intentionally spread the plague by catapulting their plague-ridden cadavers over the walls of Caffa in the Crimea”
Their empire didn’t last. Within 80 years they’d left China and been replaced by a new dynasty, Ming. And in Persia they blended in so completely that by the 15th century they were totally unrecognizable.
Their empire didn’t last and within 80 years they had already been replaced with the Ming Dynasty. Some Mongols went to Persia later on and they blended in so well to the point that they became unrecognizable.
(Ibn al-Athir)“Al-Athir obtained his information from first-hand witnesses, and he describes the great destructiveness and swiftness of the invasions throughout a large area of the Near East.” Which shows us that this historian saw great destruction from the Mongols and how swift they were when destroying areas.
In 1245, Pope Innocent IV issued bulls and sent Giovanni da Pian del Carpine to the "Emperor of the Tartars". Asking the Mongol ruler to become a Christian and stop attacking Europe. The Khan Güyük replied in 1246 in a letter demanding the submission of the Pope and the other rulers of Europe.
(Ibn al-Athir)“He also mentions certain customs that made the Mongols especially effective invaders.” This reveals that the Mongols were effective raiders and they were really good at attacking other areas. Which put him in a frightening situation because they were a great threat to him.
He killed Muhammad II's governor because Genghis Khan had sent expensive gifts in a caravan to Muhammad II, but the governor had them arrested, most likely out of fear, saying they were spies, and when Genghis Khan sent ambassadors to resolve the issue, Muhammad killed the merchants along with one ambassador.
(Ibn a,-Athir)“Al-Athir concludes by asking for divine protection for the Muslims against the Mongol threat.” This shows us that he was so threatened by the Mongols he asked for divine protection for the Muslims. The historian was scared and he viewed the Mongols as a threat.
Alauddin Khilji: People told him about the brutality of the Mongols and how he shouldn't fight them but he ignored this all and still fought them going in with no fear which leads him to defend and defeat them protecting India.
Pope Innocent IV's attempted to bring Russian princes into the crusading movement against the Mongols. He urged them to explore whether the Mongols were planning attacks on Christianity and to join together against them.
Rashid al-Din wrote one of the most important books about Mongol history called Compendium of Chronicles. It explained the story of the Mongols all the way from Adam to his lifetime. He describes the Turks (Mongols) as brutal and savage.